Innovative Probiotic Lactic Yeast for the pharmaceutical, nutritional and agricultural industries

Trial#71: Efficacy of Turval B0399 on the growth and conversion index on weaned piglets up to 35kg

The results clearly demonstrate that the additive Turval B0399 at the dose of 1.5 g/kg of feed improved growth and feed conversion of group fed weaned pigs.


Dr. G. Bonetti (agronomist) feed plant GIMA SpA Rubiera (RE) Italy
Prof. Paolo Bosi (DIPROVAL –UNIVERSITY OF BOLOGNA)
Statistical analysis: Dr. Claudio Mondini Udine.

  

Summary

 

The test was conducted at the experimental farm of G.I.Ma. spa, on a total 306 weaning pigs. The subjects (breed: crossed Large White x Landrace x Duroc) were weaned at 21 days and allocated in groups of ten on average, in 30 cages with rubber slattened floor. Half of the cages were randomly assigned to the control treatment, and the other to the experimental treatment, for a total 152 and 154 pigs, respectively. The control pigs received a commercial feed compound, while the experimental diet was characterized by the addition of Turval B0399 (1.5 g/kg of feed) to the same feed compound. The feed compound was not supplement with an ant microbial additive. The trial lasted 72 days up to 35 Kg. All the pigs were fed in order to have a minimal residue (semi-ad libitum) and the feed assigned to each cage was registered every day. At the start and end of the trial the subjects of each cage was registered every day.

 

The final live weight and the daily live weight gain were significantly higher (P=0.01) than the control.
 
The feed intake was not changed by the supplementation with Turval B0399, but the feed was better converted to growth. Indeed, the feed conversion index was significantly reduced by 9.5 (P<0.01) in the experimental group.
 
On the whole the results clearly demonstrate that the additive Turval B0399 at the dose of 1.5 g/kg of feed improved growth and feed conversion of group fed weaned pigs.
 


 
III-2.3.0.C EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS AND GENERALITIES.
 
Objective
Effects of Turval B0399 in the diet of the weaned piglet on:
growth in post-weaning period,
conversion index,
 
Methodology
 
The test was conducted at the experimental farm of G.I.Ma. spa, on a total 306 weaning pigs. The subjects (breed: crossed Large White x Landrace x Duroc) were weaned at 21 days and allocated in groups of ten on average, in 30 cages with rubber slattened floor. Half of the cages were randomly assigned to the control treatment, and the other to the experimental treatment, for a total 152 and 154 pigs, respectively. The control pigs received a commercial feed compound, while the experimental diet was characterized by the addition of Turval B0399 (1.5 g/kg of feed) to the same feed compound. The feed compound was not supplement with an ant microbial additive.
The trial lasted 72 days.
All the pigs were fed in order to have a minimal residue (semi-ad libitum) and the feed assigned to each cage was registered every day. At the start and end of the trial the subjects of each cage were weighted together.
 
 
III-2.3.1.C Species, breed and sex of animals and method of their identification
 
Breed:                        crossed Large White x Landrace x Duroc
Weaned age:            21 day old
Sex:                            mixed, registered for statistical analysis (see
 
Method of identification:
All of the subjects were identified with auricular number from No. 1 to No. 306 of the subjects tested..
Each control cage were identified by e number from 1 to 15
Each treated cage were identified by number from 16 to 30.
 
 
 
III-2.3.2.C Number of groups tested and statistical aspects.
 
Groups tested
·      Number of groups:                                                         2
·      Number of groups treated (T) with TurvalB0399:        1 (1,5 g of Turval B0399/kg of feed)
·      Number of groups of control (C) :                                1
·      Number of animals in each group:                               152 (control group) + 154 (treated group)
·      Total number of animals (piglets):                                306
 
The subjects were weaned at 21 days and randomly allocated in groups of ten on average, in 30 weaning cages with rubber slattened floor. The overall distribution is reported in the data annex.
Half of the cages were randomly assigned to the control treatment, and the other to the experimental treatment, for a total 152 and 154 pigs, respectively.
The control pigs received a commercial feed compound, while the experimental diet was characterised by the addition of the additive Turval B0399 (1.5 g/kg of feed) to the same feed compound.
The feed compound was not supplement with an antimicrobial additive.
The trial lasted 72 days.
All the pigs were fed in order to have a minimal residue (semi-ad libitum) and the feed assigned to each cage was registered every day. At the start and end of the trial the subjects of each cage were weighted together.
 
 
 
 


 
Statistical analysis of the data:
 
The data for each cage were converted to individual data, depending on the number of subjects, and then the values were processed for the statistical analysis by the T test, considering the cage as experimental unit. (see Par. 2.3.7)
The individual data were calculated from values of each cage divided for the number of subjects in the cage.
Significant differences of weight, daily weight gain, daily feed consumption and conversion index due to the additive (Turval B0399) were detected
 
All individual data was elaborated through analysis of the variance factor, utilizing the SPSS statistical package (SPSS Vers.. 9 Application Guide, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, 1999)
 
Diet and cages were considered in the model.
The number of subjects and cages chosen was retained statistically sufficient.  
The general effect of Turval B0300 was compared with a normal standard diet.
 
 
III-2.3.3.C Concentration of the additive in the feed
 
Dosage:
 
Dosage of additive TURVAL B03909: 1,5 g/kg of feed
Concentration kluyveromyces B0399 in the feed for testing:
 5 x 106 (CFU/g) x 1.5 (g/1000g) = >7.5 x 10 3 CFU Kluyveromices B0399/g of feed
 
Identification of testing feeds :
·      C: Control = feed without additive
·      T: feed with 1,5 g/kg of additive (recommended dosage)
 
 
Characteristics of the feed
The nutritional composition of the daily ration in qualitative and quantitative terms in shown in Table 2.3.B.1.
No auxinic of additive was added.


 
Table 2.3.B.1. Ingredients of the base diet (%) utilized in test 79
 
 
 
Components of the feed (cfr.analysis G.I.Ma N. 8990 )
%
 
 
Premix 
30
Mais
36
Orzo 66-70 intero
23
Crusca tenera
10
Olio di soia
1
Tot
100
 
 
 
Analysis of the feed
(cfr.analysis G.I.Ma N. 8990
%
 
 
 
 
Sost secca
87,61
Protein
17,.81
Lipidi
5.68
Fibra
3,87
Calcium
0,77
Phosphate
0,60
Lysine hydrochloride
1,13
DL methionine + Cistine
0,63
Treonine
0,69
L tryptophan
0,21
LYS d.a.
0,99
Appetaiser
3.3
Ac linol
2,47
Vitamin - mineral supplement
1.00
Appetizer
0.025
 
 
 
 


Characteristics of the additive
 
Butch No: 11.6.04.01
Manufacturing date: 20.04.01
Expiry date: 19.10.01
Cells of Kluyveromyces fragilis B0399 in the additive TURVAL B0399: > 5 x 106 CFU /g
(cfr. Turval Lab. Final Quality Control dated: 26.04.01)
 
 
 
III-2.3.4.C Experimental facilities utilized and operative conditions

-          Experimental facility: experimental farm of G.I.Ma. spa (Gruppo Italiano Mangimi S.p.A.) (RE), Italy .
-          30 cages with rubber slattened floor, dimensions:1.5 x 2 mt
-          Aeration: controlled.
-          Relative Humidity: form 50% to 60%
-          Temperature control: from 28°C to 26°C
-          The internal temperature and humidity was automatically controlled.
-          In the 1st week infrared light lamps placed over each subject supplied additional heating.
-          Cleaning of the are: before the start of the study house was cleaned and disinfected. The feeders were shecked and refilled every day. The floor was cleaned daily and the manure was disposal every day.
·      State of health of the animals at the beginning of the experiment: good
·      Conditions of feeding and breeding: normal
·      Control of feeding and measures taken to prevent the contamination of the groups of reference (especially through cross contamination of the foods caused by microorganisms):
The diets were prepared from the same feed. The feed was produced in a single phase and in a quantity sufficient for sustaining the entire test for all the animals. To obtain the diets with Turval B0399, the basic diet in the quantity of 10 kg at a time, was supplemented with 15 g of the additive, thoroughly mixed in a plastic container and labeled with the name of the dietetic treatment (name of the lots).
 
 
III-2.3.5.C Date, duration and nature of the tests

Duration of the testing
 
·      Beginning of test: from weaning at 21 days old – Date: 10.05.2001.
·      Total Duration : 72 days
·      Final average weight of reference group: 35,475 kg

Nature of the tests conducted on live animals:
-          Recording weight at the beginning of the test and at the end of the test
-          The general health of the subjects was also observed.
 
III-2.3.6.C Unwanted effects and other drawbacks verified during the testing
(cf. Table 2.3.7.2.)
During the trial 5 and 3 subjects died, respectively in the control and in the Turval group.


 
III-2.3.7B Results and discussion
 
 
 
Tab: 2.3.7.1-INITIAL DATA
 N. Cage
N. pigs/ cage
Total weight per cage (kg)
Individual weight (kg)
C
T
C
T
C
T
C
T
1
16
10
10
58.8
61.4
5.88
6.14
2
17
10
11
55.5
55.8
5.55
5.07
3
18
10
10
59
54.6
5.90
5.46
4
19
10
10
53.2
55.2
5.32
5.52
5
20
10
10
47.5
50.4
4.75
5.04
6
21
10
11
61.3
58.4
6.13
5.31
7
22
10
10
50.7
51.5
5.07
5.15
8
23
11
10
60
48.8
5.45
4.88
9
24
11
11
60.6
60.5
5.51
5.50
10
25
10
10
56.9
58.9
5.69
5.89
11
26
10
10
61.7
55.5
6.17
5.55
12
27
10
11
50.4
64.6
5.04
5.87
13
28
10
10
53.1
53.2
5.31
5.32
14
29
10
10
51.5
47.7
5.15
4.77
15
30
10
10
48.5
47.5
4.85
4.75
TOT
152
154
828.7
824
 
 
MEAN
5.45
5.35
SD
0.44
0.42
p (t test)
ns.
 
p (= significance): probability of retaining the null hypothesis of equal means.
Means differences are considered statistically significant when p < 0.05
ns (= non significant): means differences not significant (p > 0.05)
 
The lack of statistical significance between the means difference of individual weight of control and treated groups at the beginning of the test, indicates that the subjects were assigned at each cage randomly.


 
Tab: 2.3.7.2 - FINAL DATA
N. cage
N. pigs/ cage
Total weight per cage (kg)
Individual weight
(kg)
C
T
C
T
C
T
C
T
1
16
10
10
380,4
375,2
38,04
37,52
2
17
9
11
318,5
421,8
35,39
38,35
3
18
10
10
352,5
382,7
35,25
38,27
4
19
10
10
348,4
379,9
34,84
37,99
5
20
10
10
309,7
398,9
30,97
39,89
6
21
10
10
358,7
388,3
35,87
38,83
7
22
10
10
332,2
360,0
33,22
36,00
8
23
10
10
374,5
365,8
37,45
36,58
9
24
10
11
345,4
444,1
34,54
40,37
10
25
10
9
387,3
339,5
38,73
37,72
11
26
10
10
390,5
364,4
39,05
36,44
12
27
9
11
315,4
393,8
35,04
35,80
13
28
10
10
347,6
354,2
34,76
35,42
14
29
10
10
352,5
364,2
35,25
34,64
15
30
9
9
303,7
330,3
33,74
36,70
TOT
147
151
5217,3
5663,1
 
 
Dead N.
5
3
 
 
 
 
Mean
35,47
37,37
SD
2.15
1.63
p (t test)
0.011
 
 
p (= significance): probability of retaining the null hypothesis of equal means.
Means differences are considered statistically significant when p < 0.05
 
The strong statistically significant difference between control and treated groups, indicated by a very low p value (p <<0.05), shows a positive effect of use of the additive (Turval B0399) on the individual weight.


Tab: 2.3.7.2
 
N. cage
Individual daily weight gain
kg/dd
Total feed consumption
per cage
(kg)
Individual daily feed consumption
(kg)
Conversion index
C
T
C
T
C
T
C
T
C
T
1
16
0,446
0,435
567
532
0,788
0,739
1,76
1,69
2
17
0,414
0,462
511
581
0,789
0,733
1,94
1,59
3
18
0.407
0.456
511
567
0,710
0,788
1,74
1,72
4
19
0.410
0.451
532
546
0,739
0,759
1,80
1,69
5
20
0.364
0.484
495
618
0,687
0,858
1,89
1,77
6
21
0.413
0.465
554
586
0,769
0,814
1,86
1,77
7
22
0.391
0.428
524
530
0,728
0,736
1,86
1,71
8
23
0.444
0.440
580
549
0,806
0,762
1,69
1,73
9
24
0.403
0.484
505
634
0,702
0,800
1,77
1,65
10
25
0.459
0.442
597
501
0,829
0,773
1,81
1,78
11
26
0.457
0.429
603
517
0,837
0,718
1,83
1,67
12
27
0.417
0.416
551
484
0,850
0,611
2,08
1,47
13
28
0.409
0.418
559
517
0,777
0,718
1,89
1,72
14
29
0.418
0.415
502
502
0,775
0,805
1,67
1,59
15
30
0.401
0.444
487
559
0,677
0,777
1,91
1,97
Total
 
 
 
 
11,465
11,391
 
 
Mean
0.417
0.445
 
 
0,764
0,759
1,83
1,70
SD
0.026
0.022
 
 
0.055
0.057
0.10
0.11
p (t test)
0.04
 
 
ns
0.002
 
p (= significance): probability of retaining the null hypothesis of equal means.
Means differences are considered statistically significant when p < 0.05
ns (= non significant): means differences not significant (p > 0.05)
 
Statistical analysis does not show a significant effect of additive on daily feed consumption.
Conversely the additive (Turval B0399) displayed a strong effect (p<<0.05) on conversion index and a clear influence (p<0.05) on individual daily weight gain.


 
Nutritional effectiveness:
-          Growth in post-weaning period
-          Conversion index
 
In tables 2.3.7B. the results regarding the growth of the subjects are shown. Firstly the average starting weights of all weaning cages the subjects are displayed. Secondly the average starting weights of the subjects that were in trial till the end of the experiment are presented.
 
The everage individual starting and final weight, and daily live weight gain were 5.45; 5.35; 0.297 kg and 17.64; 18.71; 0.326 kg, respectively for the control and the Turval group.
 
The final live weight and the daily live weight gain were significantly higher (P=0.01) than the control.
 
The feed intake was not changed by the supplementation with Turval B0399, but the feed was better converted to growth. Indeed, the feed conversion index was significantly reduced by 9.5 (P<0.01) in the experimental group.
 
On the whole the results clearly demonstrate that the dietary supplementation with Turval B0399 at the dose of 1.5 g/kg of feed improved growth and feed conversion of group fed weaned pigs
 
 

Laboratori Turval Italia Srl – Head Office and Research Dpt: Scientific and Technological Park "L. Danieli"
via Jacopo Linussio, 51 – 33100 Udine (UD) – P. IVA 01883020305