Innovative Probiotic Lactic Yeast for the pharmaceutical, nutritional and agricultural industries

Trial#136 - Efficacy of Turval B0399 on the growth and conversion index on weaned piglets

Conductor: Dr. Renzo Bonetti (veterinary) (Bologna Vet Association - Local Health Ministry (USL) n 24) Italy

2.0.- Summary

 
The test was conducted at the experimental farm of G.I.Ma. spa (Gruppo Italiano Mangimi S.p.A.) (RE), Italy , on a total 414 weaning pigs.
The subjects (breed: crossed Large White x Landrace x Duroc) were weaned at 24 days and allocated in groups of ten on average, in 40 cages with rubber slatted floor. Half of the cages were randomly assigned to the control treatment, and the other to the experimental treatment, for a total 204 and 210 pigs, respectively. The control pigs received a commercial feed compound, while the experimental diet was characterized by the addition of TURVAL 0  (1.5 g/kg of feed) to the same feed compound. The feed compound was not supplement with an anti-microbial additive. The trial lasted 71 days up to 35 kg.
 
The final live weight and the daily live weight gain in the treated group were significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the control group.
 
The feed intake was not changed by the supplementation with TURVAL 0, but the feed was better converted to growth. Indeed, growth was higher in the treated group and the feed conversion index was significantly reduced by 0,24 the 11,94% (P<0.001) in the experimental group.
The higher number of mortalities in the control group indicates a minor capacity of reacting against pathological events, which are more frequent in the winter season. This difference in number is probably due to the major capacity of an immune reaction on the part of the subjects treated with the TURVAL 0 additive.
 
On the whole, the results clearly demonstrate that the additive Turval B0399 at the dose of 1.5 g/kg of feed improved growth and feed conversion of the treated weaned piglets.
 


 
2.1 Experimental conditions and generalities
 
Objective
Effects of TURVAL 0 in the diet of the weaned piglet on:
growth in post-weaning period,
conversion index,
mortality
 
Methodology
 
The test was conducted at the experimental farm of G.I.Ma. spa (Gruppo Italiano Mangimi S.p.A.) (RE), Italy, on a total of 414 weaning pigs. The subjects (breed: crossed Large White x Landrace x Duroc) were weaned at 24 days and allocated in groups of ten on average, in 40 cages with rubber slatted floor.
Half of the cages were randomly assigned to the control treatment, and the other to the experimental treatment, for a total 204 and 210 pigs, respectively.
The control pigs received a commercial feed compound, while the experimental diet was characterized by the addition of TURVAL 0 (1.5 g/kg of feed) to the same feed compound.
The feed compound was not supplemented with an anti-microbial additive.
The initial trial, No. 71 (2007), had been conducted in the Spring, which is one of the best seasons for the growth of piglets
This time, we wanted to test the additive under more severe conditions. For this reason, the trial was conducted in winter, under the worst environmental conditions.
In wintertime, even though the internal environment at the experimental farm is air-conditioned, the overall temperature, especially of the floor, is significantly lower when compared to that of other seasons. The piglets are therefore under more stress, and growth is usually minor.
The results of the trial conducted in winter and the eventual positive effects are, therefore, more significant.
The trial lasted 71 days.
All the pigs were fed in order to have a minimal residue (semi-ad libitum) and the feed assigned to each cage was registered every day. At the start and end of the trial the subjects of each cage were weighted together.
 
 
2.2. Species, breed and sex of animals and method of their identification
 
Breed:                        crossed Large White x Landrace x Duroc
Weaned age:            24 day old
Sex:                            mixed, registered for statistical analysis
Method of identification:
All of the subjects were identified with auricular number from No. 1 to No. 414 of the subjects tested..
Each control cage were identified by e number from 1 to 20
Each treated cage was identified by numbers from 21 to 40.
 
 
 
2.3. Number of groups tested and statistical aspects.
 
2.3.1.-Groups tested
Number of groups:                                                  2
Number of groups treated (T) with TurvalB0399: 1 (1,5 g of TURVAL 0/kg of feed)
Number of groups of control (C) :                         1
Number of animals in each group:                                    204 (control group) + 210 (treated group)
Total number of animals (piglets):                         414
 
The subjects were weaned at 24 days and randomly allocated in groups of ten on average, in 40 weaning cages with rubber slatted floors. The overall distribution is reported in the data annex.
Half of the cages were randomly assigned to the control treatment, and the other to the experimental treatment, for a total 204 and 210 pigs, respectively.
The control pigs received a commercial feed compound, while the experimental diet was characterized by the addition of the TURVAL 0 (1.5 g/kg of feed) to the same feed compound.
The feed compound was not supplement with an antimicrobial additive.
The trial lasted 71 days.
All the pigs were fed in order to have a minimal residue (semi-ad libitum) and the feed assigned to each cage was registered every day. At the start and end of the trial the subjects of each cage were weighted together.
 


 
2.3.2.-Statistical analysis of the data:
 
The data for each cage were converted to individual data, depending on the number of subjects, and then the values were processed for the statistical analysis by the T test, considering the individual data as experimental unit.
The individual data were calculated from values of each cage divided for the number of subjects in the cage.
Significant differences of weight, daily weight gain, daily feed consumption and conversion index due to the TURVAL 0 were detected
 
All individual data was elaborated through analysis of the variance factor, utilizing the VassarStats: Website for Statistical Computation (http://faculty.vassar.edu/lowry/VassarStats.html, 2010).
 
Diet and cages were considered in the model.
The number of subjects and cages chosen was retained to be statistically sufficient.  
The general effect of TURVAL 0 was compared with a normal standard diet.
 
 
2.4 Concentration of the additive in the feed
 
Dosage:
 
Dosage of additive TURVAL 0: 1,5 g/kg of feed
 
Identification of testing feeds :
C: Control = feed without additive
T: feed with 1,5 g/kg of additive (recommended dosage)
 
 
Characteristics of the feed
The nutritional composition of the daily ration in qualitative and quantitative terms in shown in Table   2.4.1.
No auxinic of additive was added.


 
Tab 2.4.1. Ingredients of the base diet (%) utilized in the test
 
 
 
 
Analysis of the feed
 
%
 
 
 
 
Dry substance
88,120
Protein
17,.48
Lipids
6.00
Fiber
3,38
Ashes
5,13
Starch
38,40
Starch+sugars
44,09
N:D:F:
11,72
Calcium
0,7
Phosphate TOT
0,53
Phosphate UTL
0,37
Sodium
0,22
Potassium
0,76
Chlorine
0,42
Lysine
1,17
DL methionine + Cistine
0,7
Treonine
0,72
L tryptophan
0,2
Isoleucine
0,68
Valine
0,8
Lactose
2,5
Ac linol
1,7
Vit A
15750,0 U.I:/g
Vit D
1575,0 U.I:/g
Vit E
37,8 U.I:/g
CU
125,01 mg/Kg
 
Characteristics of the additive
 
Batch No: 291009
Production date: Ottobre 2009
Expiration date: Luglio 2010


 
2.5 Experimental facilities utilized and operative conditions

Experimental facility: experimental farm of G.I.Ma. spa (Gruppo Italiano Mangimi S.p.A.) (RE), Italy .
40 cages with rubber slatted floor, dimensions:1.5 x 2 mt
Aeration: controlled.
Relative Humidity: from 60% to 80%
The internal temperature was controlled from 26°C to 28C
The internal temperature and humidity was automatically controlled.
In the 1st week infrared light lamps placed over each subject supplied additional heating.
Cleaning of the area: Before the start of the study the house was cleaned and disinfected. The feeders were checked and refilled every day. The floor was cleaned daily and the manure was disposed of every day.
State of health of the animals at the beginning of the experiment: good
Conditions of feeding and breeding: normal
Control of feeding and measures taken to prevent the contamination of the groups of reference (especially through cross contamination of the foods caused by microorganisms):
The diets were prepared from the same feed. The feed was produced in a single phase and in a quantity sufficient for sustaining the entire test for all the animals. To obtain the diets with
TURVAL 0, the basic diet in the quantity of 10 kg at a time, was supplemented with 15 g of the additive, thoroughly mixed in a plastic container and labeled with the name of the dietetic treatment (name of the lots).
 
2.6. Date, duration and nature of the tests

Duration of the testing
Beginning of test: from weaning at 24 days old – Date: 11.11.2009.
Total Duration : 71 days
Final average weight of reference group: 31,66 kg

Nature of the tests conducted on live animals:
Recording weight at the beginning of the test and at the end of the test
The general health of the subjects was also observed.
 
2.7. Unwanted effects and other drawbacks verified during the testing
(cf. Table 2.3.7.2.)
During the trial 14 and 8 subjects died, respectively in the control and in the (treated) Turval group.
The higher number of mortalities in the control group indicates a minor capacity of reacting against pathological events, which are more frequent in the winter season. This difference in number is probably due to the major capacity of an immune reaction on the part of the subjects treated with the probiotic additive.


 
2.8. Results and discussion
 
2.8.1 Statistical analysis of the results
 
 
 
Tab: 2.8.1.-INITIAL INDIVIDUAL DATA
 No. Cage
No. pigs/ cage
Total weight per cage (kg)
Individual weight (kg)
C
T
C
T
C
T
Control
Trial
1
21
10
10
70,61
51,40
7,06
5.14
2
22
10
11
82,71
80,41
8,27
7,31
3
23
10
10
63,42
61,30
6,34
6,13
4
24
10
11
77,91
76,78
7,79
6,98
5
25
10
10
56,14
76,60
5,61
7,66
6
26
10
11
51,32
88,00
5,13
8,00
7
27
10
10
80,31
71,50
8,03
7.15
8
28
11
10
66,22
81,70
6,02
8,17
9
29
11
11
83,05
81,74
7,55
8,34
10
30
10
10
75,40
52,80
7,54
5,28
11
31
10
10
53,81
57,90
5,38
5,79
12
32
10
11
80,32
61,16
8,03
5,56
13
33
10
10
60,92
59,60
6,09
5,96
14
34
10
10
58,53
67,10
5,85
6,71
15
35
10
10
65,80
84,80
6,58
8,48
16
36
10
11
77,92
69,41
7,79
6,31
17
37
10
11
58,52
71,17
5,85
6,47
18
38
10
11
85,12
86,13
8,51
7,83
19
39
11
11
80,31
82,39
7,30
7,49
20
40
11
11
61,71
73,04
5,61
6.64
TOT
204
210
1390
1430
 
 
MEAN
6.818
6.801
Df
38
p (t test)
ns= 0,96
 
p (= significance): probability of retaining the null hypothesis of equal means.
Means differences are considered statistically significant when p < 0.05
ns (= non significant): means differences not significant (p > 0.05)
 
 
The lack of statistical significance between the means difference of individual weight of control and treated groups at the beginning of the test, indicates that the subjects were assigned to each cage randomly.


 
Tab: 2.8.2.- FINAL INDIVIDUAL DATA
No. cage
No. pigs/ cage
Total weight per cage (kg)
Individual weight
(kg)
C
T
C
T
C
T
Control
Trial
1
21
10
9
315,2
299,3
31,52
33,25
2
22
10
11
338,3
401,9
33,83
36,53
3
23
9
10
271,8
320,1
30,20
32,01
4
24
10
11
315,8
374,3
31,58
34,03
5
25
10
10
305,4
352,8
30,54
35,28
6
26
10
11
306,2
388,5
30,62
35,32
7
27
9
8
291,5
284,7
32,38
35,59
8
28
10
10
317,9
362,8
31,79
36,28
9
29
11
10
361,1
387,3
32,83
38,73
10
30
8
10
274,5
323,6
34,31
32,36
11
31
8
10
224,2
301,5
28,03
30,15
12
32
8
11
255,7
359,8
31,96
32,71
13
33
10
10
308,7
343,2
30,87
34,32
14
34
9
7
269,3
249,5
29,92
35,65
15
35
10
10
320,7
382,9
32,07
38,29
16
36
10
11
337,8
401,6
33,78
36,51
17
37
9
11
269,3
356,4
29,92
32,40
18
38
10
10
345,7
332,0
34,57
33,20
19
39
9
11
275,3
421,8
30,59
38,34
20
40
10
11
319,5
360,8
31,95
32,80
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TOT
190
202
6023,76
7004,84
633,25
693,76
Dead N.
14
8
 
 
 
 
Mean
31,66
34,69
Df
38
p (t test)
<0,001
 
p (= significance): probability of retaining the null hypothesis of equal means.
Means differences are considered statistically significant when p < 0.05
 
 
The statistical significant difference between the individual weight of treated groups and control at the end of the test, indicates that after the treatment the subjects assigned at treated group were larger than subjects of control.
 
The strong statistically significant, indicated by a very low p value (p <<0.05), shows a positive effect of use of the additive (Turval B0399) on the individual weight.


 
Tab: 2.8.3.- RESULTS INDIVIDUAL DATA
N. cage
Individual daily weight gain
kg/dd
Total feed consumption
per cage
(kg)
Individual daily feed consumption
(kg)
Conversion index
C
T
C
T
C
T
C
T
C
T
1
21
0,345
0,396
494
440
0,696
0,689
2,02
1,74
2
22
0,360
0,412
498
582
0,702
0,745
1,95
1,81
3
23
0,336
0,365
454
481
0,71
0,678
2,11
1,86
4
24
0,335
0,381
486
547
0,685
0,701
2,04
1,84
5
25
0,351
0,389
496
506
0,699
0,712
1,99
1,83
6
26
0,359
0,386
500
504
0,704
0,645
1,96
1,67
7
27
0,343
0,401
463
407
0,725
0,717
2,11
1,79
8
28
0,363
0,396
498
478
0,701
0,673
1,93
1,7
9
29
0,356
0,441
574
529
0,735
0,745
2,06
1,69
10
30
0,377
0,383
410
513
0,721
0,723
1,91
1,89
11
31
0,319
0,343
381
458
0,671
0,645
2,1
1,88
12
32
0,337
0,382
399
526
0,702
0,673
2,08
1,76
13
33
0,349
0,399
481
474
0,678
0,667
1,94
1,67
14
34
0,339
0,408
450
348
0,705
0,701
2,08
1,72
15
35
0,359
0,421
520
506
0,732
0,712
2,04
1,69
16
36
0,366
0,425
502
565
0,707
0,723
1,93
1,7
17
37
0,339
0,366
431
538
0,674
0,689
1,99
1,88
18
38
0,367
0,359
517
474
0,728
0,667
1,98
1,86
19
39
0,328
0,435
435
560
0,681
0,717
2,07
1,65
20
40
0,371
0,368
500
530
0,704
0,678
1,91
1,84
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mean kg
0,350
0,393
 
 
0,703
0,695
2,01
1,77
df
38
 
 
38
38
p (t test)
<0,001
 
 
ns = 0,31
<0,001
 
p (= significance): probability of retaining the null hypothesis of equal means.
Means differences are considered statistically significant when p < 0.05
ns (= non significant): means differences not significant (p > 0.05)
 
 
Statistical analysis does not show a significant effect of additive on daily feed consumption.
 
Conversely statistical analysis displayed a strong difference between Conversion index of treatment and control (p<<0.05), united with highly significant difference between the two Individual daily weight gain (p<<0.05), proving a clear influence of Turval B0399.


 
 
 
Nutritional effectiveness:
·        Growth in post-weaning period
·        Conversion index
 
In tables 2.8.1.and 2.8.2, the results regarding the growth of the subjects are shown. Firstly, the average starting weights of all weaning cages are displayed. Secondly, the average weights of all subjects, from beginning to the end ot the trial, are presented.
 
The average individual starting and final weight, and daily live weight gain were 6.82; 6,80; 0.297 kg in the control group and 31,66; 34.69; 0.326 kg, for the Turval group.
 
The average individual starting were 6.82-6,80 kg, respectively for the control and the Turval group. So the average of individual final weight were 31,66; 34.69; kg. Finally the average of individual daily live weight gain were 0,350-0,393 Kg.
 
The final live weight and the daily live weight gain were significantly higher (P<0.001) than the control.
 
The feed intake was not changed by the supplementation with Turval B0399, but the feed was better converted to growth. Indeed, the feed conversion index was significantly reduced by 11,94% (P<0.001) in the experimental group.
 
 
The daily ingestion per head in the control group was slightly higher , but this was due to the heavier initial weight of the control group compared to that of the treated group..
 
The higher number of mortalities in the control group indicates a minor capacity of reacting against pathological events, which are more frequent in the winter season. This difference in number is probably due to the major capacity of an immune reaction on the part of the subjects treated with the probiotic additive.
           
 
On the whole the results clearly demonstrate that the dietary supplementation with Turval B0399 at the dose of 1.5 g/kg of feed improved growth and feed conversion of group fed weaned pigs


 
 

Laboratori Turval Italia Srl – Head Office and Research Dpt: Scientific and Technological Park "L. Danieli"
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